"A Star Is Made", from The NYTimes, By STEPHEN J. DUBNER and STEVEN D. LEVITT
So says Anders Ericsson, a 58-year-old psychology professor at Florida State University.
"Deliberate practice entails more than simply repeating a task Ã¢â‚¬ playing a C-minor scale 100 times, for instance, or hitting tennis serves until your shoulder pops out of its socket. Rather, it involves setting specific goals, obtaining immediate feedback and concentrating as much on technique as on outcome.
Ericsson and his colleagues have thus taken to studying expert performers in a wide range of pursuits, including soccer, golf, surgery, piano playing, Scrabble, writing, chess, software design, stock picking and darts. They gather all the data they can, not just performance statistics and biographical details but also the results of their own laboratory experiments with high achievers.
Their work, compiled in the "Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance," a 900-page academic book that will be published next month, makes a rather startling assertion: the trait we commonly call talent is highly overrated. Or, put another way, expert performers Ã¢â‚¬ whether in memory or surgery, ballet or computer programming Ã¢â‚¬ are nearly always made, not born. And yes, practice does make perfect. These may be the sort of clichÃƒÂ©s that parents are fond of whispering to their children. But these particular clichÃƒÂ©s just happen to be true.
Ericsson's research suggests a third clichÃƒÂ© as well: when it comes to choosing a life path, you should do what you love Ã¢â‚¬ because if you don't love it, you are unlikely to work hard enough to get very good. Most people naturally don't like to do things they aren't "good" at. So they often give up, telling themselves they simply don't possess the talent for math or skiing or the violin. But what they really lack is the desire to be good and to undertake the deliberate practice that would make them better."